Editing summarising paraphrasing rewriting are all part of the writing process

A brief overview of fogfactor's editing, paraphrasing and summarizing services.

proofreading, editing, rewriting, edit, proofread

The Difference between Proofreading and Editing
Why Are Proofreading and Editing Essential 
Our Proofreading and Editing Services

The difference between proofreading, rewriting and editing. Are proofreading and editing the same?

No, editing and proofreading are not alike. Although many people use the terms interchangeably, editing and proofreading are two different facets of the revision process. Proofreading presents a challenge mainly because we do not read each letter, but whole words. Look at this sentence:

"It's amzanig taht you can raed tihs sentnece even thuogh almsot evrey word is wrnogly splet."

As long as the first and last letters are correct, the word is 'readable.' That's why proofreaders and editors may charge what appears to be an exorbitant price for proofreading a piece of text. They have to almost 'read' every letter, not just the word.

Proofreading and editing or rewriting has to be split into several short blocks of time, and needs intense concentration. Proofreading is also segmented into checking for only one kind of error at a time. Trying to identify and revise too many things simultaneously dilutes focus and increases the risk of missed errors.

Proofreading is done after editing and is the concluding stage of editing and proofreading services. It focuses on errors in grammar and punctuation, and misspellings.

While all word processors include a spell-check function, they cannot be depended on for professional proofreading, editing or rewriting. In this sentence for example, a spell-check will not flag any errors:

"The quack brown fix jumps over the laze old god."

Grammar checkers can be even more baffling. Since they work with a small number of predefined rules, their 'suggestions' can be hilarious at times.

Essentially, proofreading involves checking for spelling errors, punctuation marks, and such. 

Editing, on the other hand,  involves replacing words, sentences and whole paragraphs in extreme cases. Editing's primary objective is to improve tone, nuance, emotive content and readability, and cannot be done correctly by any grammar or spelling checker.

edit and proofreadThe need for Proofreading, Rewriting and Editing Services:

English is a difficult language to master. Word connotation, nuance, tone and wrong process can alter the intended message content and cause misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Editing makes sure your message is clear, uncluttered, and pleasingly constructed.

The 'fog factor' is a writer's yardstick to measure readability. It measures tautology, padded syllables, sentence length, multi-syllable words and other factors as a guide to meaningful writing. The ideal range is between 7 and 9. A fog factor above 1 1 indicates the writing is too heavy for most people to accept. As far as possible we try to achieve a range of between 7 and 9 when editing.

How To Determine The Fog Factor Or Fog Index?

  1. Calculate the average number of words per sentence)
  2. Add % of number of words of 3 syllables or more
  3. Multiply by 0.4 = Fog index

The "ideal" score is 7 or 8; 9 to 12 is a bit heavy; anything above 12 is too hard for most people to understand without difficulty.

proofread and edit. What it doesWhat our editing services cover: [Note: Editing is on correct language usage only, and does not affect content relevance or accuracy.]

  • Text organization and presentation,
  • Tone
  • Fog index {a measure of multi-syllable words, words per sentence and sentences per paragraph}
  • Word and verb choice,
  • Transitions
  • Redundancies and tautology
  • Grammar
  • Sentence & paragraph length
  • Active v/s passive structures.
  • Effective application of white space 

rewrite | Rewriting services | why rewrite?Rewriting Services. What Rewriting Involves

Rewriting involves re-constructing an existing piece of writing to make it unique, novel or more readable. We also rewrite  all types of documents and PLR articles. Rewriting involves making significant changes to the original writing. Words, sentences, paragraphs and whole sections may be rearranged or rewritten. Advanced language skills are needed for acceptable rewriting tasks.

More questions? Simply click here and ask away, being sure to provide us with all relevant information. Please include sufficient details so we can contact you easily. When sending documents for proofreading and editing by email, please send them as an attachment with a .doc or .docx extension.


Paraphrasing involves expressing someone else's ideas using your own words, whilst still retaining the main ideas expressed in the original source. Unlike quoting directly, summarizing or paraphrasing an author's ideas allows you to present your interpretation and understanding of an author's ideas and to fold them more fully into your writing. Paraphrasing:
  • does not quote the source word for word
  • involves rewriting a passage in your own words
  • changes the words or phrasing of a sentence, but the originad meaning is retained and expressed fully.
  • may include reference to the source

Summarizing  picks out the most important ideas in a text, discounts irrelevant information, and merges key ideas in a meaningful way. Summarisation strategies can be used in almost every type of content. Summarizing:

  • helps ascertain essential ideas and key support details.
  • focuses on key words and phrases.
  • reduces verbiage and includes only the main points for added conciseness.
  • does not quote the source verbatim
  • offers a broad overview, so is usually much shorter than the original text
  • content must be accredited to the original source


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